A lipoma is slow-growing, benign growth of fat cells. It is contained in a thin, fibrous capsule and found right under the skin. A lipoma is typically not tender and moves around easily with slight pressure. A lipoma is not cancerous and treatment generally is not necessary. There is also a condition called familial lipomatosus, where people develop multiple lipomas, especially on the arms and legs, and other family members have these growths as well.
If the lipoma is on a pressure-bearing area, it may create discomfort and this is when people seek removal. People also request removal because they don’t like the appearance of these bumps. Often a small incision can be made over the lipoma and they can be “popped” out easily. This is a simple in-office surgical procedure under local anesthesia.
Fast facts about blackheads
Blackheads are made of oxidized melanin and not trapped dirt.
Squeezing or scrubbing at blackheads can make them worse.
To reduce blackheads, avoid oil-based skin care products, humid environments, tight clothes, and skin products that contain alcohol.
They tend to appear when hormones lead to the increased production of sebum, an oily substance, by the glands under the skin.
Keratin is a protein that occurs naturally in skin cells. Cysts develop when the protein is trapped below the skin because of disruption to the skin or to a hair follicle. These cysts often develop in response to skin trauma, HPV infection, acne, or excessive exposure to the sun.
They may contain fluid or semisolid material. Although cysts can appear anywhere in the body, most frequently they live in the skin, ovaries, breasts or kidneys. Most cysts are not cancerous. Epidermoid cysts form when surface skin cells move deeper into the skin and multiply.
Epidermal inclusion cyst (EIC), also known as sebaceous cyst and epidermoid cyst, is the most common cyst of the skin. It ranges in size from a few millimeters to a few centimeters and originates from the follicular infundibulum. Its contents are a cheesy, malodorous mixture of degraded lipid and keratin.
Blackheads form when a clog or plug develops in the opening of hair follicles in your skin. Each follicle contains one hair and a sebaceous gland that produces oil. This oil, called sebum, helps keep your skin soft. Dead skin cells and oils collect in the opening to the skin follicle, producing a bump called a comedo.
Brazilian chicas are already known for their dazzling derrieres, so it’s no surprise that there’d be a contest to see who has the best boo-tay in Brazil, with the winner crowned Miss Bum Bum. Like any other contest, though, contestants have been “stacking the deck,” getting implants to make up for their lack of back
Andressa Urach, 27, was one such contestant and finished second in 2012’s finals. Her stunning brown round would set many a man and some ladies within fapping distance on fire.
However, she developed a problem with the hydrogel implants that made up her curvature. Her body was rejecting the implants, causing the tissue in her leg to rot. Her doctors even felt they’d need to amputate her left leg to prevent it from spreading.
But after spending a month in the hospital,
she seems to be coming along just fine. She’s had several cosmetic surgeries over her career, but now considers herself a changed woman after her “ass-polosion.”
Trypophobia, characterised as the fear of holes, has also been linked to a more generalised aversion to circular shapes such as bubbles. But what makes bubbles so disgusting? The answer may be found lurking just under the skin.
Previous evidence suggested that the fear of bubbles stemmed from the clusters of round shapes found on poisonous animals, such as snakes and the blue-ringed octopus.
But a new theory from psychologists at the University of Kent suggests our innate suspicion of rough circular shapes could, in fact, be linked to a history of human illness.
Tom Kupfer, of the University’s School of Psychology, noted that many infectious diseases result in clusters of round shapes on the skin: smallpox, measles, rubella, typhus, scarlet fever etc. Similarly, many ectoparasites, like scabies, ticks, and botfly also lead to clusters of round shapes on the skin. In other words, if your skin starts popping, it’s probably a bad sign.
Kupfer recruited 300 trypophobia sufferers from various support groups, as well as 300 university students with no known history of the condition. Both groups were given 16 cluster images of real objects related to a diseased part of the body. Eight pictures were focused on images of illness – including but not limited to such nauseating sights as a cluster of ticks and a circular-shaped rash in the center of someone’s chest. The other eight images were unrelated to illness or disease, such as drilled holes in a brick wall, or lotus flower seeds.
Hand Amputations and Replantation
Since the first replant more than 50 years ago, thousands of severed body parts have been reattached, preserving the quality of life for thousands of patients through improved function and appearance that the void remaining after amputation cannot provide. Ronald Malt performed the first replantation on May 23, 1962 at Massachusetts General Hospital on a 12-year-old boy who had his right arm amputated in a train accident.This amputation occurred at the level of the humeral neck.
This first replantation was performed with an intramedullary steel rod for internal fixation and involved repair of the brachial artery; both communicating brachial veins; and the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Malt performed another replant and reported on these in The Journal of the American Medical Association in 1964. In a later report, this original patient was described to achieve some functional recovery of the replanted right arm after tendon transfers and wrist arthrodesis.
Since Malt’s first replant, technological advances and the use of the microscope have made possible the replantation of other parts, including thumbs, fingers, ears, scalps, facial parts, and genitalia.
HAND REIMPLANTATION IS POSSIBLE AND VERY SUCCESSFUL IF THE AMPUTATED PART WAS BROUGTH EARLY TO THE SURGICAL UNIT WITHIN 6 HOURS AND IN A CLEAN DOUBLE PLASTIC BAG IN SOME ICE PROVIDING THE AMPUTATED PART IS NOT CRUSHED .IN OUR CASE THIS A CLEAN STRAIGHT CUTHAND INJURY .THE POST OPERATIV RESULT IN OUR CASE IS AFTER ONE YEAR FROM CONTINOUS PHYSIOTHERPY AND A GOOD CO OPERATED PATIENT.
A five-year-old Indian girl with a rare condition which caused her head to swell to twice its normal size has died.
Roona Begum, who made international headlines after images of her condition first appeared in 2013, passed away on Sunday at her home in a village in remote northeastern India.
Fatima Begum, the girl’s mother, said she developed breathing difficulties and was rushed to hospital, but died on the way.
Roona was born with hydrocephalus, a potentially fatal condition that causes cerebrospinal fluid to build up on the brain.
Her desperate parents turned to the media in 2013 in an attempt to get their daughter help, and in 2013 a New Delhi hospital agreed to treat her for free.
Over the last four years, surgeons had operated a total of eight times and managed to reduce her head circumference from 94 centimetres (37 inches) to 58 centimetres (23 inches).
The fluid build-up was putting pressure on Roona’s brain and making it impossible for her to sit upright.
Despite the surgeries she was still unable to walk, eat unassisted, or speak, but her parents still held hope that further operations would eventually allow her to live a normal life and attend school.
How Autopsies Work Autopsy Basics
In order to understand how an autopsy works, it helps to first understand what they are and why they are done.An autopsy is the medical examination of a dead body to determine the cause of death. Autopsies are performed when
someone dies suddenly and unexpectedly while in apparently good health. Autopsies may also be performed at the request of the family of the deceased.
There are two types of autopsies:
The forensic autopsy or medical-legal autopsy is the kind you most often see on TV and in movies. According to Dr. Kiesel,“The forensic autopsy spends almost as much time on the external surfaces of the body as it does on the internal surfaces,’cause that’s where evidence is.” Forensic autopsies try to find answers to the cause of death apart of an overall police investigation.
On TV shows like CSI or The X-Files, medical examiners seem to be a major component in the investigation and can use DNA evidence for just about everything. Dr. Kiesel commented on some of the more common TV-driven misconceptions:
We don’t go out and do the entire investigation. We are not the police… We’ve got our part, the police have their part. The autopsy doesn’t always tell you all of the answers. Somebody’s who committed suicide — the
autopsy’s going to tell you why they died, what killed them — but it won’t necessarily tell you why they did it.
So, all of the answers aren’t going to be there…
We can’t do DNA on every case and match up every little thing. Even though it happens on TV, it’s not within our capabilities. Very often it’s not within the lab’s capabilities. Sometimes there are financial constraints on what we can do.The clinical autopsy is usually performed in hospitals by pathologists or the attending physician to determine a cause of death for research and study purposes.
They’re really interested in the disease processes that are going on, and they’re interested … in making that
clinical-pathological correlation. A person came in with these symptoms, here’s the treatment they got and
here are my findings. They try to put the whole package together to help inform people of what happened or
may have happened.
In the eyes of the law, all deaths fall into one of five categories of causes. In the next section, we’ll look at the five manners of death.
Cysts are usually noncancerous and have a sac-like structure that can contain fluid, pus, or gas. Cysts are common and can occur anywhere on the body. Cysts are often caused by infection, clogging of sebaceous glands, or around earrings.
There are many different types of cysts. Most cysts are benign, or noncancerous. Whether a cyst needs treatment depends on a number of factors, including:
Type of cyst
Location of cyst
Cyst is causing pain or discomfort
Whether or not the cyst is infected
Cysts form for different reasons. They can be caused by
What are tonsil stones?
Tonsil stones, or tonsilloliths, are hard white or yellow formations that are located on or within the tonsils.It’s common for people with tonsil stones to not even realize they have them. Tonsil stones aren’t always easy to see and they can range from rice-sized to the size of a large grape. Tonsil stones rarely cause larger health complications. However, sometimes they can grow into larger formations that can cause your tonsils to swell, and they often have an unpleasant odor.
What causes tonsil stones?
Your tonsils are made up of crevices, tunnels, and pits called tonsil crypts. Different types of debris, such as dead cells,mucus, saliva, and food, can get trapped in these pockets and build up. Bacteria and fungi feed on this buildup and cause a distinct odor. Over time, the debris hardens into a tonsil stone. Some people may have only one tonsil stone, while others have many smaller formations. Potential causes of tonsil stones include:
poor dental hygiene
chronic sinus issues
chronic tonsillitis (inflamed tonsils)
Symptoms of tonsil stones
Although some tonsil stones may be difficult to see, they can still cause noticeable symptoms. Symptoms of tonsil stones can include:
white or yellow debris on the tonsil
Smaller tonsil stones, which are more common than large ones, may not cause any symptoms.
Tonsil stone removal
Most tonsilloliths are harmless, but many people want to remove them because they can smell bad or cause discomfort.Treatments range from home remedies to medical procedures.
Gargling vigorously with salt water can ease throat discomfort and may help dislodge tonsil stones. Salt water may also help to change your mouth chemistry. It can also help get rid of the odor tonsil stones can cause. Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon salt in 8 ounces of warm water, and gargle.
You may first discover that you have tonsil stones when you cough one up. Energetic coughing can help loosen stones.
Removing the stones yourself with rigid items like a toothbrush is not recommended. Your tonsils are delicate tissues so it’s important to be gentle. Manually removing tonsil stones can be risky and lead to complications, such as bleeding and infection. If you must try something, gently using a water pick or a cotton swab is a better choice.Minor surgical procedures may be recommended if stones become particularly large or cause pain or persistent symptoms.
Laser tonsil cryptolysis
During this procedure, a laser is used to eliminate the crypts where tonsil stones lodge. This procedure is often performed using local anesthesia. Discomfort and recovery time are usually minimal.
In coblation cryptolysis, no heat is involved. Instead, radio waves transform a salt solution into charged ions. These ions can
cut through tissue. As with lasers, coblation cryptolysis reduces tonsil crypts but without the same burning sensation.
A tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of tonsils. This procedure may be done using a scalpel, laser, or coblation device.Performing this surgery for tonsil stones is controversial. Doctors who recommend tonsillectomy for tonsil stones tend to use it only for severe, chronic cases, and after all other methods have been tried without success.
In some cases, antibiotics can be used to manage tonsil stones. They can be used to lower the bacteria counts that play a crucial role in the development and growth of the tonsil stones.The downside of antibiotics is that they won’t treat the underlying cause of the stones, and they come with their own potential side effects. They also shouldn’t be used long term, which means the tonsil stones will likely return after you stop using the antibiotics.